Lotti Brown Designs

-- Artist & Designer - Author & Teacher of Drawing Your Way --

 Drawing Made Easy - Mark-Making: Texture, Form and Detail

Drawing made easy for beginners and developing artists - understanding mark-making to create texture, form and detail in your drawing…

This is part of my Start Drawing Your Way resource. In this drawing lesson, we’ll start to explore how the marks you make on your page when drawing will create the texture and form of your subject.

This is important as it helps you to show something about the qualities of what you’re drawing – to describe the details and also the texture and the form itself. (Look back at the lesson on light and shade for more help with understanding what is ‘form’ and how to show it…)

In this lesson:

  • we’ll first take a look at why the marks we make as we draw are so important

  • we’ll look at how to use the direction of our marks to give information about the form of what we’re drawing

  • we’ll look at drawing close up details

  • we’ll look at drawing textures

  • we’ll put it all together in a still-life drawing practice (fruity! …see below)

You can soon start to use different marks to add interesting details and textures to your drawings and learn easy ways to create the sense of volume or form

You can soon start to use different marks to add interesting details and textures to your drawings and learn easy ways to create the sense of volume or form

Drawing as Describing

What does it look like? Is it smooth, rough, fluffy, hard, soft? These things are important qualities to be able to communicate about what you’re drawing. It’s also a really good way of being able to show your individual artistic ‘handwriting’ (your unique style) and develop your own particular way of putting marks on your page.

This lesson builds on what we learnt in the lesson about creating the impression of form and volume through light and shade so do go back and refresh yourself on that now if you need a recap.

In this lesson, we’re going to look at how the direction, size, and spacing of the marks you put on your page can tell us about the texture and details of what you’re drawing – but also about the FORM as well.

Detailed mark-making helping to describe the shape and form of an onion

Detailed mark-making helping to describe the shape and form of an onion

When you make your artistic marks on the page, you can use:

  • the size of the marks

  • their spacing (how close together they are, or how far apart)

  • and their direction to convey information about what you’re drawing.

You can also take advantage of the medium you’re using as well – pen, pencil, charcoal, etc.

  • How hard or soft is it?

  • How thick is the nib or tip?

  • How hard are you pressing?

All of these things will make a difference to how your drawing looks and will work together to make up your unique drawing style.

Some of my own shell drawings - trying out different ways of making marks to show texture, detail, shape and form.

Some of my own shell drawings - trying out different ways of making marks to show texture, detail, shape and form.

It’s quite hard to think about all of these things at once, so to make our drawing learning easier, we can do a few extra exercises to get used to these ideas and experiment a bit so that we can start to develop your own ways of expressing these things.

Drawing Made Easy - Start Making Your Mark

We can start to think about how to use direction, spacing, and size in our mark-making when we draw...

  • What’s the texture and how will we show it?

  • What detail is there?

  • Is there a ‘direction’?

  • How will we make our lines or marks on the page to show this?

How to Use Direction to Show Form

Similarly to when we looked at light and shade on this page, we can use the direction of the marks we make also show the FORM of what we’re drawing.

Exercise: Think about Direction and Form

  • Try drawing an onion and think about how the lines on the skin help us to understand that the onion is (roughly) spherical - the stripes (lines) follow the rounded shape so they appear to curve. When we make our marks as we draw, we can use any lines like this (that we call ‘contour lines’) and follow their direction to help us more easily show the 3D rounded form of our object.

The stripes on the skin of the onion help us to know about (and draw) its rounded form. Click on the image to download it for your own drawing practice (opens in a new window).

The stripes on the skin of the onion help us to know about (and draw) its rounded form. Click on the image to download it for your own drawing practice (opens in a new window).

Drawing the Onions

Just look at what you see and try to make marks to represent this on your page as best you can. Think about:

  • the overall shape

  • the detail and lines you can see

  • the shadows

  • how you can use ‘direction’ in your mark-making to help show the volume/form (the rounded shape)

Follow along with my drawing to see how I approached the drawing exercise…

First I sketched in very rough outlines with my pencil

After inking in the main outline with my drawing pen, I add pencilled contour lines following the stripes on the onions skin to help show the rounded form of the onions

I add in areas of shadow trying to make the direction of my marks follow the rounded shape of the onion

The shadows cast by the objects are just as important as the ones on the object. I also add in any texture and detail I can see on the onion skins.

We can also use these same ideas when we’re drawing other things…

We had quite well defined lines on our onion, which was really helpful for us when thinking about the form. But in other cases, we might have to use hints from the shape of the light and shadows we see or any texture present, to help us to suggest the form and volume and help us to draw the direction of our marks to make ‘contour lines’ - or with any lines we make to represent shadow or texture.

Look back at the page on light and shade (opens in a new window) and note how our shading with the soft pencil seems to follow the curve of the fruit. This is what we need to also suggest with our marks, allowing the direction of the marks we make to follow the shape and form of what we’re drawing to make it look more solid.

Even using direction in a very minimal way will really help our drawing - just the odd, very simple line or mark where the direction of the mark shows the form of what you’re drawing… this is an easy way to make your drawing look far more solid and add a sense of depth.

Practising different types of mark-making to give my onions a sense of solidity or form

Practising different types of mark-making to give my onions a sense of solidity or form

This is a skill that does take some practice, so if your drawings don’t look completely right straight away, don’t worry… just think about what you might do differently next time…

Exercise: Thinking About Texture, Detail and Form When We Make Our Drawing Marks

Drawing Details - Flowers

Let’s start with flower petals. How can you use marks, together with any shade/light techniques, to show the way the petal forms and any texture, marks and wrinkles? Try drawing one or both of these spring flowers - or some of your own flowers.

Draw close up to concentrate on the details. You can use these photos for your drawing practice if you want.

Click on the images below to download them to practice.

  • Look at the detail on the petals. Are they smooth? Soft?

  • How is the flower shaped? Is it flat? Does it curve? How do you know this?

  • Look closely at the centre of the flower. What’s it made up of? What does it look like close up? What does it look like if you hold it a little further away? How will you show this with the marks that you put on your page? (TIP: Don’t get bogged down in trying to show too much tiny detail)

Click the images below to see my drawings of the flowers…

Drawing Textures - Shells

Shells are another wonderful subject matter to practice these mark-making techniques with. Try drawing some that you have at home or you can use these photos if you prefer (click on each to download them).

Think about how you might show the form or curve of the shell in your drawings and how the detail or texture of the shell could help you with this…

  • Look closely at the texture of the shell, its shape, its form, its details. What does it tell you about the shell?

  • What do you like about it?

  • How are you going to show these things in your drawings?

Click on the images below to take a closer look at my shell drawings…

Mark-Making - Putting it All Together

Fruit Drawing Exercise

Let’s put all these things together in the final drawing exercise - a fruity still life — kind of a favourite amongst art students as it’s so easy to get hold of at home and it also gives us lots of practice at drawing shapes, forms, different textures, light and shade.

While you’re drawing think about:

  • overall shape

  • light and shade

  • texture and detail

  • the form and any contour lines to help show this

  • drawing it in your own way that you feel comfortable with!

Fruity still life to practice drawing - click the image to download it to draw (opens in a new window)

Fruity still life to practice drawing - click the image to download it to draw (opens in a new window)

Start your drawing with an easy outline in pencil to map in the main shapes…

A rough sketched outline is an easy way to get your drawing started

A rough sketched outline is an easy way to get your drawing started

Then use your pen or pencil to add the firm outlines and all the details including the texture, contours, light and shade. What can you see? Draw it!

Lines, dots, squiggles and scribbles to show the detail in my drawing in black drawing pen

Lines, dots, squiggles and scribbles to show the detail in my drawing in black drawing pen

Please remember: there is no right or wrong way to do this. Drawing is made easy when you just take a little time to think out what’s the best way for you to show these things… what sort of marks do you like to make? What technique do you like? What feels right and fun? What comes naturally? (It’s okay if these things change over time as you become more comfortable with certain techniques)

Have fun practising!

This page is part of a free ‘Start Drawing’ resource that I’m publishing on my website to get you started drawing in your own unique way, accurately but with expression and style. If you’d like to stay updated with the new pages that are added plus news of my own artworks, please do sign up to my email newsletter, below…

All intellectual property rights in my designs and products (and in the images, text and design of this website) are and will remain the property of Charlotte Brown. Any infringement of these rights will be pursued seriously.